Saturday, August 20, 2011

Some Good Thoughts

1 WHEN YOU FOCUS ON PROBLEMS, YOU WILL HAVE MORE PROBLEMS, BUT, WHEN YOU FOCUS ON POSSIBILITIES YOU WILL HAVE MORE OPPORTUNITIES….….!!!

2) “IN THE RACE OF LIFE, DO NOT WORRY ABOUT PEOPLE MOVING AHEAD OF YOU, TAKE YOUR OWN TIME BUT ONCE YOU ARE READY TO RUN, MAKE SURE YOU ARE THE BEST OF ALL..….!!!

3) “THE SUCCESS OF A CORPORATION IS DETERMINED BY INNOVATING & EXECUTING GOOD IDEAS TO BECOME MORE & MORE RELEVANT TO CUSTOMERS….!!!

4) “THE ELDEST IS RESPECTED IN HIS HOUSE, THE HEADMAN IN HIS VILLAGE; A KING IS RESPECTED IN HIS COUNTRY, BUT THE EDUCATED & LEARNED EVERYWHERE.!!!

5) “FORGET YOUR OWN SADNESS BY CREATING A LITTLE HAPPINESS FOR OTHERS, BECAUSE WHEN YOU ARE GOOD TO OTHERS, YOU ARE BEST TO YOURSELF.....….…!!!

Babies' first 1,000 days vital to their long-term health

The first 1,000 days of a child's life - the nine months in the womb and the first two years out of it - determines their health prospects for life, a new research has suggested.

The study has found that this period can permanently affect everything from a child's chances of developing diabetes or having a heart attack in old age, to their future weight and life expectancy, reports the Daily Mail.

Professor David Barker and his colleagues at Southampton University developed the theory after decades of research.

They believe there are a series of critical stages in a child's development. If conditions are not perfect at each step, problems can occur later.

Poor nutrition for a mother affects both the unborn baby's weight and how well the placenta works, while smoking, stress, drugs and alcohol can also take their toll.

Professor Barker believes many health problems can be traced back to poor growth in the womb.

He has shown that the lighter a baby is at birth, the higher its odds of heart disease in later life. On average, a baby weighing less than 5lb 7oz is twice as likely to die from a heart attack than one born at 9lb 7oz.

The seeds of diabetes may also be sown before birth, as the pancreatic cells that make insulin develop in the womb.

Conditions in the uterus can also affect weight for years to come, studies suggest.

Professor Barker said many of these early effects are 'set in stone' and cannot be undone. He added that the key to health is ensuring women eat well throughout their lives. (ANI)

Saturday, July 2, 2011

Tips - Job Interview

Perceptions about interviews usually depend on the interviewer's like ability and first impressions.

Right after a job interview, you could either be supremely confident or faintly worried. Either way, we feel pretty relieved when it is all over. Perceptions about interviews usually depend on the interviewer's like ability and first impressions. It is, therefore, important to remember some statutory courtesies in order to have a positive interaction and favorable result.

After an interview shoot a thank you email or letter
Many interviewees think that once the face-to-face interview is over, the interview process is complete. However, this is not the case. The job interview is just the beginning. Once the personal interview is done, the company mulls, evaluates and decides the best candidate who would best suit the job profile and company.

Therefore, it is a good idea to remain in touch with the interviewer and the company in general. One of the best ways to do so is to drop them a ?Thank You? note. If you have been in touch with company or interviewer via e-mail, then one should email such a note within 24 hours after the interview. Interviewers have short memories. So, this is your final chance to stand apart from all of the others who want the same position.

Follow up after the interview when there is no response
How long should you wait before you call the company or interviewer? Usually, if there is no response within sometime, you will start worrying about whether it is appropriate to call back and check hiring status.

When to call
Post-interview it is best to give a gap of two to three days before you make the first follow up call. One of the most important things to keep in mind during the call is that one should be succinct and brief. Another important aspect is to chalk out a time when to call. The best time to call the interviewer is after lunch or an hour before closing time. This will ensure that you have a comfortable time frame to speak to the interviewer.

Whom to call
Interviewees are sometimes confused about who to follow up with after the interview?the human resource team or the interviewer directly. This situation is more confusing if there was more than one interviewer. In such circumstances, it is best to first check with the human resource team on the hiring status.

What to say
Begin the conversation by thanking the person for the opportunity to interview with the company. Recap some of the conversational highlights and clarify any information you need to check on. Use the last paragraph as the chance to state, ?The job is a good fit for me because of XYZ, and my past experience in XYZ.?

Continue your job search
While waiting to hear from the company after the job interview, you should not ignore other interview calls because you are waiting to hear back from the current interview. Even if you are convinced that you have got the job, there can be many slips between the cup and the lip. It is also a good idea to critique your previous performance and use the experience to polish your interviewing skills....

Thursday, June 30, 2011

Very Very Important Tips to be away from doctors !

Answer the phone by LEFT ear .
Do not drink coffee
TWICE a day.
Do not take pills with
COOL water .
Do not have
HUGE meals after 5pm.
Reduce the amount of
OILY food you consume.
Drink more
WATER in the morning, less at night.
Keep your distance from hand phone
CHARGERS .
Do not use headphones/earphone for
LONG period of time.
Best sleeping time is from
10pm at night to 6am in the morning.
Do not lie down immediately after taking
medicine before sleeping.
When battery is down to the
LAST grid/bar, do not answer the phone as

the radiation is 1000 times.

Do this and you can avoid expensive doctors who are more worried about paying their car installments (costly cars) than the health of their patient.

DRINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACH

It is popular in Japan today to drink water immediately after waking up every morning. Furthermore, scientific tests have proven its value.


We publish below a description of use of water for our readers. For old and serious diseases as well as modern illnesses the water treatment had been found successful by a Japanese medical society as a 100% cure for the following diseases:

Headache, body ache, heart system, arthritis, fast heart beat, epilepsy, excess fatness, bronchitis asthma, TB, meningitis, kidney and urine diseases, vomiting, gastritis, diarrhea, piles, diabetes, constipation, all eye diseases, womb, cancer and ear nose and throat diseases.

LOVE VS SEX

HE LOVE versus sex debate has been going on since time immemorial. Scientists have blamed a larger hypothalamus (the sex centre of brain) in men that forces them to think about sex 25 hours a day. And we women believe them readily. We take pride in the fact that we are more emotional and sensitive.It all goes back to the caveman era. “Over the years women developed more caring abilities. They learnt from their mothers to be more nurturing, emotional and sensitive. That’s why they look for love to get intimate with any man,” says Dr Gitanjali Sharma, Delhi-based family and marriage counsellor.And traditionally... after all that hunting, the only thing man learned to get intimate was through sex.“The idea of intimacy in both the genders has been different. While women look for a long term commitment, men are quite happy with a fling,” says psychologist Dr Nisha Khanna.But the traditional gender roles have been changing over a period of time. “There are women who are predatory too now. Otherwise it has always been the man who believes in first getting into a woman’s pants and then into her head,” says adman Prahlad Kakkar.And now, there’s in fact new research that challenges the caveman theory. Scientists at Oxford University studied 19 pre-historic humans and found that only one in ten males moved out of the cave to look for food. It was the woman of the cave, who moved out to hunt for the family.Maybe this particular group of pre-historic humans had men who were particularly lazy, but that just proves one thing — women might have been great multi-taskers even in the Neanderthal era.

Wednesday, June 29, 2011

How to prevent yourself from Sun Stroke

The rays of the sun far away from your skin when taking a stroll during a hot summer day. Make sure to wear a hat or walk with a light umbrella, wearing light protective clothing.

Make sure to go out in the early part of the day if you want to enjoy the solitude and relaxation while sitting and watching the ocean waves as this is when the sun has not reached its peak
. If you prefer late in the afternoon, make sure it is the time when the sun is setting. Take along a lightweight umbrella, a bottle of water, and enjoy the peacefulness and quietness, broken only by your thoughts, without worrying about the rays of the sun beating down on your body.

Use a body size umbrella to completely shade you when it is necessary to remain outdoors for a long period of time. Setting up a table to display your wares at an art show, or casual dining outdoors in the heat of the day, will ensure you the rays of the sun will be prevented from beating directly down on your body preventing dehydration and sunstroke.

Limit vigorous activity during hot or humid weather, especially during the middle of the day. Try to schedule exercise during cooler morning or evening hours. Rest under the shade for about 10 minutes every 1/2 hour so as not to get exhausted.

Drink plenty of water frequently, not just sips and not just when you feel thirsty.

Stretching at Office

1. Do simple stretching exercises. Stretch your arms, legs, neck and torso while sitting. This will help prevent you from feeling stiff.

2.

3. Stand up every half hour to walk around a bit. This will ensure continuous blood circulation in your arms and legs, and will keep them from getting too strained. Take walks to the water station to refill your glass. If you can afford to take longer breaks, take a short walk outside your building, and use the stairs instead of the elevator to go down. Aside from giving your legs and heart a good workout, you would be able to take in fresh air as well.

4.

5. Give your eyes a break from focusing on your screen. Every 30 minutes or so, shift your focus from the computer screen and scan around other subjects in the room, such as a window, clock, desk, or door. This helps promote eye movement and lessens chances of eye irritation and headaches. Another technique to relax your eyes would be to rub your hands together, then place your cupped hands over your eyes.

6.

7. Take advantage of the downtime created by rebooting or large file downloads. Get up and take short walks around your floor. If you can afford to do it and do not have many co-workers around who would be bothered, try something more ambitious such as doing a few push-ups, sit-ups, and/or jumping jacks.

8.

9. Take a few deep breaths. To work your abdominal muscles, hold your stomach for a few seconds when breathing in, then release when breathing out. If possible, get some fresh air in your lungs by taking a walk outside, as mentioned in a previous step.

Have a bottle of water by your side and make a habit of drinking some every half hour. If you do this consistently you will begin to feel more alert. Take trips to your water refilling station to refill your jug or glass, so that you can also walk around and exercise your legs at the same time.

FITNESS WEEK : MORNING WALK AS EXERCISE

MORNING WALK AS EXERCISE

This is perhaps the most overlooked and neglected form of exercise. Because it sounds and look easy, most of us do not bother to walk, but prefer to sign up for expensive aerobic classes and spend a lot of time in gym.

We recommend walking as exercise since it costs nothing, requires no partner and expensive gadgets, but will burn nearly the same calories as jogging does. It does not burden the body, instead if done in calm and peaceful surroundings like a park or country road, it will let off the tension in your mind and body.

Before you use walking as exercise

1. Make sure you do not eat an hour before going out for a walk. Digesting takes a lot of energy from the body. If you exercise right away after eating, you are going to overburden yourself. Fruits or juices are okay, since they do not tax the system as much.

2. Exercise alone will not make you healthy. No amount of walking or jogging will help the body if you do not eat properly or have greater affection with cigarettes and alcohol.

3. It does not really matter when you do it. Although we acknowledge that an early morning walk is better because the air is significantly fresher, for people who only have the afternoon to do it, it is okay.

4. Avoid busy roads. You need fresh air with green & clean surroundings. The aim is to relax the mind as well as exercise the body. If you are taking more carbon dioxide than oxygen, you are harming your body. So, find a nice, peaceful and green place.

How to do it

Actually, the human body is designed to walk, no one should be taught how to do it. However, for walking as exercise to give more impact, this is our recommendation

1. Get at least 30 minutes walk everyday. Keep your pace at 3 to 5 miles an hour.

2. Vary your routes so that you are not walking on flat ground.

3. If you cannot maintain brisk pace, this is what you should do. Alternate between a 2 minutes brisk walk with a more comfortable pace for the next 2 minutes. After that 2 minutes “rest”, pick up your pace again. If you can maintain brisk walk, do it for approximately 20 minutes. If you cannot allocate 30 minutes a day, don’t worry. The most important thing is to do it regularly. Walking as exercise will restore your peace of mind, make your blood pressure normal and control your appetite. It is better than any pills invented by mankind.

HOW WALKING AFFECTS YOUR BODY COMPONENTS

Lets learn how walking affects our body components. It affects the five components of fitness:

1. BODY:
Walking four times a weak, 45 minutes each time, the average person can lose 18 pounds in a year with no change in diet. Walking can help you trim fat as well as tone your muscles.

2. CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS : Walking, at any level or speed, two or three times a weak for at least 20 minutes increases cardiovascular strength. By increasing the strength of your heart and lungs, you increase your ability not only to exercise longer and harder but also to perform everyday task without tiring.

3. FLEXIBILITY: As with any endurance activity, walking doesn't significantly increase your flexibility. Every activity uses certain muscles groups more than others. Therefore you don't stretch the muscles that walking uses extensively. They'll tighten, straighten and perhaps cause pains or strains. These exercises are vital for remaining free injury.

4. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE: All walkers develop a moderate amount of endurance, which enables them to exercise longer before becoming exhausted. Race walker have high endurance comparable to that of marathon runners. Walking helps build your ability to do something longer without fatigue.

5. MUSCULAR STRENGTH: You will gain muscular strength with walking but probably not enough for well rounded fitness. Muscles that get an extra workout in walking include the entire back of the leg, calves, hamstrings, and gluteus. You will use muscles in the back of shoulders when you swing your arms. Walking provides other physical benefits and prevents dangers associated with other types of exercise. Walking is a low-impact exercise, which puts less strain on bones and tissues.

BENEFITS OF WALKING

Walking brings significant health benefits to body and mind. Research shows that regular walking contributes much to your overall health and fitness in important ways:

· Strengthens your heart

· Delays or prevents major diseases or illness

· Reduces blood pressure and the risk of stroke

· Reduces cholesterol

· Strengthens joints and bones

· Helps control weight

· Improves mood and self-esteem

· Contributes to “brain fitness”

· Gives you energy and a good night’s rest

· Relieves stress and worry

· Improves balance and circulation

· Boosts immune system

Fitness Week: Diet for Diseases

A balanced diet comprising of diverse and healthy foods is key to promoting good health. After all, we are what we eat - Research continues to prove that eating healthy food promotes good health and unhealthy food habits lead to a diseased body. Foods contain vital nutrients that aid our body’s metabolic function. However, a lack of consumption of these nutrients or feeding upon the wrong kinds of food leads to an accumulation of toxins within the body, resulting in chronic diseases in the long run.
A nutritious diet while ensuring overall well being, helps to maintain a healthy Body Mass Index (BMI), reduces the risk of several debilitating diseases like cancer, cardiovascular ailments, diabetes, osteoporosis and stroke. Thus a nutritious & healthy diet is important in the prevention and cure of various diseases.

Diet for diseases
There are several health conditions that can be caused or aggravated by the food we eat. However, there are also several foods that you can include in your diet to help prevent or treat diseases. It is simplest to draw up a balanced diet chart as this will ensure that you get all the nutrients you require on a regular basis. A nutrition diet chart is a diet chart that helps you to keep a track of your nutritional diet requirements and is a very useful tool when drawing up a personalized diet plan.

Heart diseases: Coronary heart diseases are a very common health problem and they are closely linked to a diet that is high in unhealthy fats. Decreasing one’s intake of fatty foods, especially fried food, will go a long way in preventing heart diseases. On the other hand, a healthy diet chart with an adequate amount of high fiber foods is seen to prevent heart diseases. People who suffer from heart problems are often advised to follow a specific high fiber diet for heart diseases that is rich in raw fruits and vegetables.

Diabetes: While genetics does play an important role in the onset of diabetes, an unhealthy lifestyle and bad eating habits are also contributing factors. A diabetes diet chart is a diet plan that is high in fiber and low in fat with a minimum amount of saturated fats. A Vegan diet is very effective in controlling this problem.

Anemia: Anemia is generally caused by nutritional deficiencies and is most commonly associated with a diet that is low in iron. Iron rich foods such as green leafy vegetables should be included in a diet for anemia.

In addition to these diseases, conditions such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, gout, and even cancer are affected by the individual’s diet. There are several diet plans such as the Alkaline Acid Diet plan, the Low Glycemic Index diet and the DASH diet plan that are meant to treat specific medical conditions.

Healthy Food Groups
Since no single food group can nourish the body with all the vital ingredients it requires, it is important that we consume a variety of healthy foods to derive the nutrition our body needs. There are five main food groups, they are:

• Fruits
• Vegetables
• Cereals and Pulses
• Dairy
• Poultry, Fish and Meat products

A healthy balanced diet of these five food groups ensures essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. The food group serving size will depend upon various factors like age, activity level, body size and gender. It is also important that one eat a variety of healthy foods from within and across the food groups. As some foods from within a food group provide more nutrients than others. This will ensure that one gets the maximum recommended nutrition from the food group; besides the food variety will make for an interesting meal.

Fitness Week : 10 Reasons to Drink Wate

Your mother may have told you to drink more water when you were young, but you may ignored the advice. As being a logical person, you need reasons on why spending all those time to drink water. Here you go –10 reasons why drinking water is good for you......

  • · Get Healthy Skin

· Flush Toxins

· Reduce Your Risk Of Heart Attack

· Cushion And Lube Your Joints And Muscles

· Get Energized And Be Alert

· Stay Regular

· Reduce Your Risk Of Disease And Infection

· Regulate Your Body Temperature

· Burn More Fat And Build More Muscle

· Get Well

Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Miscellaneous

• Meter any unmetered utilities. Know what is normal efficient use. Track down causes of
deviations.
• Shut down spare, idling, or unneeded equipment.
• Make sure that all of the utilities to redundant areas are turned off -- including utilities like
compressed air and cooling water.
• Install automatic control to efficiently coordinate multiple air compressors, chillers, cooling tower cells, boilers, etc.
• Renegotiate utilities contracts to reflect current loads and variations.
• Consider buying utilities from neighbors, particularly to handle peaks.
• Leased space often has low-bid inefficient equipment. Consider upgrades if your lease will
continue for several more years.
• Adjust fluid temperatures within acceptable limits to minimize undesirable heat transfer in long
pipelines.
• Minimize use of flow bypasses and minimize bypass flow rates.
• Provide restriction orifices in purges (nitrogen, steam, etc.).
• Eliminate unnecessary flow measurement orifices.
• Consider alternatives to high pressure drops across valves.
• Turn off winter heat tracing that is on in summer.

Water & Wastewater

• Recycle water, particularly for uses with less-critical quality requirements.
• Recycle water, especially if sewer costs are based on water consumption.
• Balance closed systems to minimize flows and reduce pump power requirements.
• Eliminate once-through cooling with water.
• Use the least expensive type of water that will satisfy the requirement.
• Fix water leaks.
• Test for underground water leaks. (It's easy to do over a holiday shutdown.)
• Check water overflow pipes for proper operating level.
• Automate blowdown to minimize it.
• Provide proper tools for wash down -- especially self-closing nozzles.
• Install efficient irrigation.
• Reduce flows at water sampling stations.
• Eliminate continuous overflow at water tanks.
• Promptly repair leaking toilets and faucets.
• Use water restrictors on faucets, showers, etc.
• Use self-closing type faucets in restrooms.
• Use the lowest possible hot water temperature.
• Do not use a heating system hot water boiler to provide service hot water during the cooling season-- install a smaller, more-efficient system for the cooling season service hot water.
• If water must be heated electrically, consider accumulation in a large insulated storage tank to
minimize heating at on-peak electric rates.
• Use multiple, distributed, small water heaters to minimize thermal losses in large piping systems.
• Use freeze protection valves rather than manual bleeding of lines.
• Consider leased and mobile water treatment systems, especially for deionized water.
• Seal sumps to prevent seepage inward from necessitating extra sump pump operation.
• Install pretreatment to reduce TOC and BOD surcharges.
• Verify the water meter readings. (You'd be amazed how long a meter reading can be estimated
after the meter breaks or the meter pit fills with water!)
• Verify the sewer flows if the sewer bills are based on them

Buildings

• Seal exterior cracks/openings/gaps with caulk, gasketing, weatherstripping, etc.
• Consider new thermal doors, thermal windows, roofing insulation, etc.
• Install windbreaks near exterior doors.
• Replace single-pane glass with insulating glass.
• Consider covering some window and skylight areas with insulated wall panels inside the building.
• If visibility is not required but light is required, consider replacing exterior windows with insulated glass block.
• Consider tinted glass, reflective glass, coatings, awnings, overhangs, draperies, blinds, and shades for sunlit exterior windows.
• Use landscaping to advantage.
• Add vestibules or revolving doors to primary exterior personnel doors.
• Consider automatic doors, air curtains, strip doors, etc. at high-traffic passages between
conditioned and non-conditioned spaces. Use self-closing doors if possible.
• Use intermediate doors in stairways and vertical passages to minimize building stack effect.
• Use dock seals at shipping and receiving doors.
• Bring cleaning personnel in during the working day or as soon after as possible to minimize
lighting and HVAC costs.

DG sets

• Optimise loading
• Use waste heat to generate steam/hot water /power an absorption chiller or preheat process or
utility feeds.
• Use jacket and head cooling water for process needs
• Clean air filters regularly
• Insulate exhaust pipes to reduce DG set room temperatures
• Use cheaper heavy fuel oil for capacities more than 1MW

Lighting

• Reduce excessive illumination levels to standard levels using switching, delamping, etc. (Know the electrical effects before doing delamping.)
• Aggressively control lighting with clock timers, delay timers, photocells, and/or occupancy
sensors.
• Install efficient alternatives to incandescent lighting, mercury vapor lighting, etc. Efficiency
(lumens/watt) of various technologies range from best to worst approximately as follows: low
pressure sodium, high pressure sodium, metal halide, fluorescent, mercury vapor, incandescent.
• Select ballasts and lamps carefully with high power factor and long-term efficiency in mind.
• Upgrade obsolete fluorescent systems to Compact fluorescents and electronic ballasts
• Consider lowering the fixtures to enable using less of them.
• Consider daylighting, skylights, etc.
• Consider painting the walls a lighter color and using less lighting fixtures or lower wattages.
• Use task lighting and reduce background illumination.
• Re-evaluate exterior lighting strategy, type, and control. Control it aggressively.
• Change exit signs from incandescent to LED.

Cooling towers

• Control cooling tower fans based on leaving water temperatures.
• Control to the optimum water temperature as determined from cooling tower and chiller
performance data.
• Use two-speed or variable-speed drives for cooling tower fan control if the fans are few. Stage the cooling tower fans with on-off control if there are many.
• Turn off unnecessary cooling tower fans when loads are reduced.
• Cover hot water basins (to minimize algae growth that contributes to fouling).
• Balance flow to cooling tower hot water basins.
• Periodically clean plugged cooling tower water distribution nozzles.
• Install new nozzles to obtain a more-uniform water pattern.
• Replace splash bars with self-extinguishing PVC cellular-film fill.
• On old counterflow cooling towers, replace old spray-type nozzles with new square-spray ABS
practically-non-clogging nozzles.
• Replace slat-type drift eliminators with high-efficiency, low-pressure-drop, self-extinguishing,
PVC cellular units.
• If possible, follow manufacturer's recommended clearances around cooling towers and relocate or modify structures, signs, fences, dumpsters, etc. that interfere with air intake or exhaust.
• Optimize cooling tower fan blade angle on a seasonal and/or load basis.
• Correct excessive and/or uneven fan blade tip clearance and poor fan balance.
• Use a velocity pressure recovery fan ring.
• Divert clean air-conditioned building exhaust to the cooling tower during hot weather.
• Re-line leaking cooling tower cold water basins.
• Check water overflow pipes for proper operating level.
• Optimize chemical use.
• Consider side stream water treatment.
• Restrict flows through large loads to design values.
• Shut off loads that are not in service.
• Take blowdown water from the return water header.
• Optimize blowdown flow rate.
• Automate blowdown to minimize it.
• Send blowdown to other uses (Remember, the blowdown does not have to be removed at the
cooling tower. It can be removed anywhere in the piping system.)
• Implement a cooling tower winterization plan to minimize ice build-up.
• Install interlocks to prevent fan operation when there is no water flow.
• Establish a cooling tower efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and followup, then make a cooling tower efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program.

Refrigeration

• Use water-cooled condensers rather than air-cooled condensers.
• Challenge the need for refrigeration, particularly for old batch processes.
• Avoid oversizing -- match the connected load.
• Consider gas-powered refrigeration equipment to minimize electrical demand charges.
• Use "free cooling" to allow chiller shutdown in cold weather.
• Use refrigerated water loads in series if possible.
• Convert firewater or other tanks to thermal storage.
• Don't assume that the old way is still the best -- particularly for energy-intensive low temperature systems.
• Correct inappropriate brine or glycol concentration that adversely affects heat transfer and/or
pumping energy.
If it sweats, insulate it, but if it is corroding, replace it first.
• Make adjustments to minimize hot gas bypass operation.
• Inspect moisture/liquid indicators.
• Consider change of refrigerant type if it will improve efficiency.
• Check for correct refrigerant charge level.
• Inspect the purge for air and water leaks.
• Establish a refrigeration efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and followup, then make a refrigeration efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program.

HVAC (Heating / Ventilation / Air Conditioning)

• Tune up the HVAC control system.
• Consider installing a building automation system (BAS) or energy management system (EMS) or restoring an out-of-service one.
• Balance the system to minimize flows and reduce blower/fan/pump power requirements.
• Eliminate or reduce reheat whenever possible.
• Use appropriate HVAC thermostat setback.
• Use morning pre-cooling in summer and pre-heating in winter (i.e. -- before electrical peak hours).
• Use building thermal lag to minimize HVAC equipment operating time.
• In winter during unoccupied periods, allow temperatures to fall as low as possible without freezing water lines or damaging stored materials.
• In summer during unoccupied periods, allow temperatures to rise as high as possible without
damaging stored materials.
• Improve control and utilization of outside air.
• Use air-to-air heat exchangers to reduce energy requirements for heating and cooling of outside air.
• Reduce HVAC system operating hours (e.g. -- night, weekend).
• Optimize ventilation.
• Ventilate only when necessary. To allow some areas to be shut down when unoccupied, install
dedicated HVAC systems on continuous loads (e.g. -- computer rooms).
• Provide dedicated outside air supply to kitchens, cleaning rooms, combustion equipment, etc. to
avoid excessive exhausting of conditioned air.
• Use evaporative cooling in dry climates.
• Reduce humidification or dehumidification during unoccupied periods.
• Use atomization rather than steam for humidification where possible.
• Clean HVAC unit coils periodically and comb mashed fins.
• Upgrade filter banks to reduce pressure drop and thus lower fan power requirements.
• Check HVAC filters on a schedule (at least monthly) and clean/change if appropriate.
• Check pneumatic controls air compressors for proper operation, cycling, and maintenance.
• Isolate air conditioned loading dock areas and cool storage areas using high-speed doors or clear
PVC strip curtains.
• Install ceiling fans to minimize thermal stratification in high-bay areas.
• Relocate air diffusers to optimum heights in areas with high ceilings.
• Consider reducing ceiling heights.
• Eliminate obstructions in front of radiators, baseboard heaters, etc.
• Check reflectors on infrared heaters for cleanliness and proper beam direction.
• Use professionally-designed industrial ventilation hoods for dust and vapor control.
• Use local infrared heat for personnel rather than heating the entire area.
• Use spot cooling and heating (e.g. -- use ceiling fans for personnel rather than cooling the entire
area).
• Purchase only high-efficiency models for HVAC window units.
• Put HVAC window units on timer control.
• Don't oversize cooling units. (Oversized units will "short cycle" which results in poor humidity
control.)

Chillers

• Increase the chilled water temperature set point if possible.
• Use the lowest temperature condenser water available that the chiller can handle.
(Reducing condensing temperature by 5.50C, results in a 20 - 25% decrease in compressor power consumption)
• Increase the evaporator temperature
(5.50C increase in evaporator temperature reduces compressor power consumption by 20 - 25%)
• Clean heat exchangers when fouled.
(1 mm scale build-up on condenser tubes can increase energy consumption by 40%)
• Optimize condenser water flow rate and refrigerated water flow rate.
• Replace old chillers or compressors with new higher-efficiency models.
• Use water-cooled rather than air-cooled chiller condensers.
• Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or near-continuous operation.
• Specify appropriate fouling factors for condensers.
• Do not overcharge oil.
• Install a control system to coordinate multiple chillers.
• Study part-load characteristics and cycling costs to determine the most-efficient mode for
operating multiple chillers.
• Run the chillers with the lowest operating costs to serve base load.
• Avoid oversizing -- match the connected load.
• Isolate off-line chillers and cooling towers.
• Establish a chiller efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and follow-up, then make a chiller efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program.

Compressed air

• Install a control system to coordinate multiple air compressors.
• Study part-load characteristics and cycling costs to determine the most-efficient mode for
operating multiple air compressors.
• Avoid over sizing -- match the connected load.
• Load up modulation-controlled air compressors. (They use almost as much power at partial load as at full load.)
• Turn off the back-up air compressor until it is needed.
• Reduce air compressor discharge pressure to the lowest acceptable setting.
(Reduction of 1 kg/cm2 air pressure (8 kg/cm2 to 7 kg/cm2) would result in 9% input power
savings. This will also reduce compressed air leakage rates by 10%)
• Use the highest reasonable dryer dew point settings.
• Turn off refrigerated and heated air dryers when the air compressors are off.
• Use a control system to minimize heatless desiccant dryer purging.
• Minimize purges, leaks, excessive pressure drops, and condensation accumulation.
(Compressed air leak from 1 mm hole size at 7 kg/cm2 pressure would mean power loss equivalent to 0.5 kW)
• Use drain controls instead of continuous air bleeds through the drains.
• Consider engine-driven or steam-driven air compression to reduce electrical demand charges.
• Replace standard v-belts with high-efficiency flat belts as the old v-belts wear out.
• Use a small air compressor when major production load is off.
• Take air compressor intake air from the coolest (but not air conditioned) location.
(Every 50C reduction in intake air temperature would result in 1% reduction in compressor power consumption)
• Use an air-cooled aftercooler to heat building makeup air in winter.
• Be sure that heat exchangers are not fouled (e.g. -- with oil).
• Be sure that air/oil separators are not fouled.
• Monitor pressure drops across suction and discharge filters and clean or replace filters promptly upon alarm.
• Use a properly sized compressed air storage receiver.
Minimize disposal costs by using lubricant that is fully demulsible and an effective oil-water
separator.
• Consider alternatives to compressed air such as blowers for cooling, hydraulic rather than air
cylinders, electric rather than air actuators, and electronic rather than pneumatic controls.
• Use nozzles or venturi-type devices rather than blowing with open compressed air lines.
• Check for leaking drain valves on compressed air filter/regulator sets. Certain rubber-type valves may leak continuously after they age and crack.
• In dusty environments, control packaging lines with high-intensity photocell units instead of
standard units with continuous air purging of lenses and reflectors.
• Establish a compressed air efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and followup, then make a compressed air efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program.

Compressors

• Consider variable speed drive for variable load on positive displacement compressors.
• Use a synthetic lubricant if the compressor manufacturer permits it.
• Be sure lubricating oil temperature is not too high (oil degradation and lowered viscosity) and not too low (condensation contamination).
• Change the oil filter regularly.
• Periodically inspect compressor intercoolers for proper functioning.
• Use waste heat from a very large compressor to power an absorption chiller or preheat process or utility feeds.
• Establish a compressor efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and follow-up, then make a compressor efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy
management program.

Pumps

• Operate pumping near best efficiency point.
• Modify pumping to minimize throttling.
• Adapt to wide load variation with variable speed drives or sequenced control of smaller units.
• Stop running both pumps -- add an auto-start for an on-line spare or add a booster pump in the problem area.
• Use booster pumps for small loads requiring higher pressures.
• Increase fluid temperature differentials to reduce pumping rates.
• Repair seals and packing to minimize water waste.

Blowers

• Use smooth, well-rounded air inlet ducts or cones for air intakes.
• Minimize blower inlet and outlet obstructions.
• Clean screens and filters regularly.
• Minimize blower speed.
• Use low-slip or no-slip belts.
• Check belt tension regularly.
• Eliminate variable pitch pulleys.
• Use variable speed drives for large variable blower loads.
• Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or near-continuous operation.
• Eliminate ductwork leaks.
• Turn blowers off when they are not needed.

fans

fans
• Use smooth, well-rounded air inlet cones for fan air intakes.
• Avoid poor flow distribution at the fan inlet.
• Minimize fan inlet and outlet obstructions.
• Clean screens, filters, and fan blades regularly.
• Use aerofoil-shaped fan blades.
• Minimize fan speed.
• Use low-slip or flat belts.
• Check belt tension regularly.
• Eliminate variable pitch pulleys.
• Use variable speed drives for large variable fan loads.
• Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or near-continuous operation
• Eliminate leaks in ductwork.
• Minimise bends in ductwork
• Turn fans off when not needed.

Motors

Motors
• Properly size to the load for optimum efficiency.
(High efficiency motors offer of 4 - 5% higher efficiency than standard motors)
• Use energy-efficient motors where economical.
• Use synchronous motors to improve power factor.
• Check alignment.
• Provide proper ventilation
(For every 10oC increase in motor operating temperature over recommended peak, the motor life is estimated to be halved)
• Check for under-voltage and over-voltage conditions.
• Balance the three-phase power supply.
(An Imbalanced voltage can reduce 3 - 5% in motor input power)
• Demand efficiency restoration after motor rewinding.
(If rewinding is not done properly, the efficiency can be reduced by 5 - 8%)

Drives

• Use variable-speed drives for large variable loads.
• Use high-efficiency gear sets.
• Use precision alignment.
• Check belt tension regularly.
• Eliminate variable-pitch pulleys.
• Use flat belts as alternatives to v-belts.
• Use synthetic lubricants for large gearboxes.
• Eliminate eddy current couplings.
• Shut them off when not needed.

CHECKLIST & TIPS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Electricity
• Optimise the tariff structure with utility supplier
• Schedule your operations to maintain a high load factor
• Shift loads to off-peak times if possible.
• Minimise maximum demand by tripping loads through a demand controller
• Stagger start-up times for equipment with large starting currents to minimize load peaking.
• Use standby electric generation equipment for on-peak high load periods.
• Correct power factor to at least 0.90 under rated load conditions.
• Relocate transformers close to main loads.
• Set transformer taps to optimum settings.
• Disconnect primary power to transformers that do not serve any active loads
• Consider on-site electric generation or cogeneration.
• Export power to grid if you have any surplus in your captive generation
• Check utility electric meter with your own meter.
• Shut off unnecessary computers, printers, and copiers at night.

Sunday, March 21, 2010

Creating an Effective Supply Chain

-Key is external and internal partnerships
-Steps
•Strategic objectives and tactics
•Integrate internal part first
•Extend to suppliers and customers
•Optimize data management across chain
•Develop strategic partnerships

Communications

•Traditional
•Mail, Phone, Fax
•EDI
•Transmission of forecasts, orders, etc.
•Individual supplier/customer agreements
•Internet (E-Commerce)
•Buying and selling using the Internet
•Business-to-business, business-to-consumer
•Exchanges

Logistics

•Managing movement of materials within the supply chain
•Traffic management
•Scheduling, carrier selection, rate and tariff management
•Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
•Internet (B2B, exchanges)
•Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP)
•JIT deliveries

Integration

•Horizontal Integration
•Acquisition of complementary product lines
•Example: HP and Compaq
•Vertical Integration
•Backward integration (“upstream”)
•Control of supply
•Example: Ford
•Forward integration (“downstream”)
•Control of customers
•Example: Apple

SCM Issues

•Strategic
•Building the chain (suppliers, manufacturing facilities, distribution centers, customers)
•Establishing partnerships
•Tactical
•Inventory, procurement, logistics, quality policies
•Operational
•Production and inventory planning and control
•Outsourcing
•Quality control

Key Elements of SCM

•Determine customer needs
•Forecast demand
•Design products to meet customer needs and minimize costs
•Control operations processes
•Minimize inventory
•Strengthen supplier relationships
•Optimize facility location
•Improve handling and storage of material

Factors Leading to SCM

-Globalization
-Competitive pressure
-Move to e-commerce
-Cost reduction opportunities
-Ability to share information
-Greater use of contract manufacturers
-Desire to manage vertical markets

Supply Chain Management

Definition: chain consisting of multiple organizations and organization units operating as customer/supplier links .
-Includes external suppliers and subcontractors .
-Involves internal manufacturing plants, warehouses, and distribution centers .
-Extends to final (external) customers.

Poka Yoka

Poka is a Japanese world meaning Cand Yoke comes from Japanese word Yokerie meaning “to avoid ‘. this has idea behind Poka Yoke is to free a person’s mind from maintaining repetitive vigil which may be practically infeasible . by doing so a person without the fear of making mistake can constructively do more value added activities.
Errors are inevitable but can be Eliminated
People always make mistakes. these can be reduced or even eliminated. some of the poke-yoke devices, which can help avoid defects, are
•guide pins/locators of different sizes.
•error detection Buzzers and Alarms
•limit Switches, Proximity switches and photo sensors .
•counters checklists
Prediction v/s Detection
when a poka –yoke is designed in a way that it helps the operator to recognise the defect before it is about to occur, it is called a prevention or prediction type poke-yoke
When a poka-yoke helps the operator to know immediately on the occurrence of the defect then it is called detection type poka-yoke detection is “after”the defect is produced the merit of this type of poka-yoka is based on the stage at which the defect is detected in simple language “Earlier the better”.

Energy Saving

•Give up- stop using energy
•Repair -Repair the machine
•Halt -use only when needed
•Reduce -Analysis of necessary quality
•Recuperate -Recirculation
•Change- to use cheaper alternative energy

Yield Ratio Improvement

1.Change the layout of material cutting
2.Change material size
3.Make another part from a recessed portion
4.Change shape.
5.Utilise scraps.

Friday, March 19, 2010

What is Systematic Approach ?

Systematic Approach means follow all Problem solving steps in pre-define sequence only.

What is Problem Solving ?

Problem Solving is a systematic approach or Methodology adopted to resolve the problem from
root & ensure that same problem will not repeat in future also.

What is Defects ?

“ If product or process is not meeting the specified or Known Standard ” is defect.

What is Problem ?

“ If product or process is not delivering the expected or desired result & reason of same is also not clear ” is problem.

Barriers to problem awareness

-Being conceived that everything is going well.
-Thinking that the way you are doing things is best possible way.
-Always making decision based on hunches instead of data.
-Unaware of challenges affecting company goals.
-Unaware about bench mark data or best in class.
-Lack of desire , tackling problem half heartedly.
-Lack of exposure

Problem solving Steps-

Step -1 : Defining the problem :
Express the undesired result in concrete terms or words so that any person with least knowledge can understand the features of the problem.

Step -2 : Observation
It is an investigation from different point of views to discover factors contributing to variation in the result.

Step -3 : Analysis
It is a activity to establish the root cause of variation in result, based on clue from observation or verified hypotheses .

Step -4 : Action
It is a step to implement counter measure for established root cause of variation

Step -5: Verification or Check
It is step or activity to check effectiveness of action taken

Step -6 : Horizontal Deployment
It is a step or activity to identify product & processes where same problem can be occur or possible to implement same action .

Step -7 : Conclusion & Standardization
It is a step or activity to make or update standards to ensure that same reason of problem will not repeat in existing or coming products & services .

DMAIC

DEFINE

Benchmarking
FMEA
IPO Diagram
Kano’s Model
Knowledge Based Mgt
Project Charter
SIPOC Model
Quality Function Deployment
Voice of Customer
Task Appraisal / Task Summary
Value Stream Mapping

MEASURE

Confidence Intervals
Measurement System Analysis
Nominal Group Technique
Pair wise Ranking
Physical Process Flow
Process Capability Analysis
Process Flow Diagram
Process Observation
Time Value Map
Value Stream Mapping
Waste Analysis

ANALYZE

Affinity Diagram
Brainstorming
Cause & Effect Diagram
e-test
F-test
Fault Tree Analysis
FMEA
Histogram
Historical Data Analysis
Pareto Chart
Reality Tree
Regression Analysis
Scatter Diagram
t-test
5 Whys

IMPROVE


DFSS
DOE
Kanban
Mistake Proofing
PF/CE/CNX/SOP
Standard Work
Takt Time
Theory of Constraints
Total Productive Maintenance
Visual Management
Work Cell Design
5S Workplace Organization


CONTROL

Control Charts
Control Plan
Reaction Plan
Run Charts
Standard Operating Procedures

7 Deadly wastes + 1

1. Overproduction
2. Waiting
3. Transportation
4. Overprocessing
5. Unnecessary inventory
6. Excessive movement
7. Production of defects
+ Underutilization of employees

Kaizens

Kaizen is small improvements and a change for better.It must be accompanied by change of method. The Kaizen concept stimulates productivity improvement as an ongoing process in any company.It is a practice oriented strategy which leads to creation of culture of improvement It is more a way of life or at least a cultural approach to quality improvement. The implementation of philosophy of Kaizen can be achieved through involvement of employees to effect improvements.Kaizen –A Necessity for the IndustryKaizens can be implemented in the industry by improving every aspect of business process in a step by step approach, while gradually developing employee skills through training and increased involvement. The principle are:
human resources are the most important company asset process must evolve by gradual improvement rather than radical changes improvement must be based on evaluation of process performance
By practicing Kaizen culture, managers demonstrate commitment to quality. Also, the workers with adequate support from managers become a major source of improvement Kaizen system is simple,but its implication are far reaching. These can be in the area of Productivity, Quality, Cost, Delivery, Safety & Morale of Employees ie; PQCDSM.
Q would mean more accurate
C would mean cheaper, lesser value
D would mean lesser cycle time or lead time, faster and more quantity.
S would mean safer,easier & comfortable working.
P is a derivative or a combination of any of the above QCDSM. However,there could be Kaizen, which is implemented primarily to improve productivity. Such a productivity improvement kaizen may also indirectly effect cost and/or quality and/or safety etc.. Hence, the categorisation of a kaizen should be done based on what it was originally intended for and not based on what all could be the eventual spin-off or side benefits
Kaizen would always involve a change in the method of doing. It could be esign change, procedure change etc Kaizen vs Large Improvements A kaizen is a small improvement without much data analysis.A problem solved through the method of using six sigma techniques would not qualify as a kaizen for the purpose of compilation .Hence a kaizen done through “dataless”improvements would qualify as a kaizen. Types of Kaizens :Primarily two types of kaizens
Idea Kaizens - These Kaizens have no why-why analysis. If any why-why analysis is done normally it would always reach the same conclusion that “no one thought of it before”. These Kaizens have been done due to an idea created.
Corrective Action Kaizens - These Kaizens are done to correct a problem and would have a proper why-why analysis.
Any kaizen involving usages of different technologies would not qualify because the person has not used his/her innovativeness/creativity in doing this kaizen but used an already existing technology to replace the “doing” method. This may have resulted in benefits but does not qualify for this compilation, as the doer has not used his” hands and head”.Pre-requisites of a Kaizen for compilationTo summarise on the qualification method of wheather a kaizen is fit for compilation, would require the same to go through the following pre-requisites:-
Kaizens should be a change for the better with a change in method.
The Kaizens should be a data-less improvement.
The Kaizen must be done by persons at the operator/supervisor level. Could be proposed by seniors also.
The Kaizen must follow the “head and Hands” principle.” Hands and/or head”
The Kaizens must be classified as an “Idea” or “Corrective” Kaizen.
Kaizens must not only be from the shopfloor but also from the office area,
Scrapyard, stores, etc.

Thursday, March 18, 2010

MURA = Unevenness

l Will result in:-
–Variation in quality
–Unbalanced capacities of various machines
–People are too busy in one area and idle in other areas
–Mixing up of experienced and inexperienced workers wrongly
–Unevenness in the provision of training and instructions
–Irregularity in tooling quality
–Using equipment unreasonably or wastefully

The Kaizen Environment

•Success breeds Success - Create Small islands of success
•Promote teamwork & collective wisdom
•Do not ridicule or criticize
•Be Patient
•Training
•Do not be complacent with present Status
•Don’t hide problems
•Be honest with your mistakes
•Have respect for individuals
•Appreciate openly where deserved
•Group consensus before implementing
•Find out what is wrong rather than who is wrong
•Do not hesitate to take others help (Internal & External)
•Always standardize
•Emphasise on systems more than results
•Be Proactive
•Do it now
•Don’t give up

Questions to Generate Kaizen Ideas

-Can I reduce the strain in the operation ?
-Can this improvement be applied else where ?
-Is there an alternative way to do it ?
-Can this be reduced ?
-Can this be increased ?
-How can I Identify the defect at source ?
-What are the non-value adding operations ?
-Can this be done in a faster, cheaper, safer & easier way ?
-Can I reduce the variations ?

The 4-M Checklist

A. Man (Operator)
1. Does he follow standards ?
2. Is his work efficiency acceptable ?
3. Is he problem-conscious ?
4. Is he responsible ?(Is he accountable ?)
5. Is he Qualified ?
6. Is he experienced ?
7. Is he assigned to the right job ?
8. Is he willing to improve ?
9. Does he maintain good human relations ?
резреж।Is he healthy ?

B. Machine (Facilities)
1. Does it meet production requirements ?
2. Does it meet process capabilities ?
3. Is the oiling (greasing) adequate ?
4. Is the inspection adequate ?
5. Is operation stopped often because of mechanical trouble ?
6. Does it meet the specifications ?
7. Does it make any unusual noises ?
8. Is the layout adequate ?
9. Are there enough machines/facilities ?
10. Is everything in good working order ?

C. Material
1. Are there any mistakes in volume ?
2. Are there any mistakes in grade ?
3. Are there any mistakes in the brand name ?
4. Are there impurities mixed in ?
5. Is the inventory level adequate ?
6. Is there any waste in material ?
7. Is the handling adequate ?
8. Is the work-in-process abandoned ?
9. Is the layout adequate ?
10. Is the quality standard adequate ?

D. Method
1. Are the work standards adequate ?
2. Is the work standard upgraded ?
3. Is it a safe method ?
4. Is it a method that ensures a good product ?
5. Is it an efficient method ?
6. Is the sequence of work adequate ?
7. Is the setup adequate ?
8. Are the temperature and humidity appropriate ?
9. Are the lighting and ventilation adequate ?
10. Are the interfaces with the previous and next process clearly defined ?

Types of MUDA

-MUDA of Overproduction
-MUDA of Stock
-MUDA of Conveyance (Transport)
-MUDA of Waiting
-MUDA of Operation Itself
-MUDA of Movement of Worker
-MUDA of Production of Inferior goods

Inventory Turn Ratio—ITR

-Company should define its method of calculation of material cost, inventory compilation.
-Company should take a stock of the inventory of the RM, WIP, FG on the last day of a month and calculate ratio
-Include all products owned even if they are not physically located on-site (e.g. material at the subcontractor for job work, material at warehouse, consignment stock held at Customers)

STORY KAIZENS

Story Kaizen describes the success story of the specific continuous improvement and gives credit to the multifunctional team members। The main objective is to achieve more efficient process and ease in operator’s job। It also involves the detailed analysis of problems। It accelerates breakthroughs in productivity and performance, which are carried out by cross-functional teams। In fact, more than 90% of the failures can be systematically analyzed to find out the root cause of the failure with the help of the ‘Phenomenon Observation’ method using 5W 1H (When, Where, Who, What, Why and How)।

Dos
Mention whether the problem is sporadic or repetitive.
Capture data, based on observation in a chronological order immediately after the failure has occurred (5W1H).
Capture past historical data about the equipment. Mention how many years the equipment is running. If similar equipments are running at more than one place, get data related on all such equipment with a holistic approach.
Take relevant photographs of the failed parts / equipment / and the locations as many as possible immediately after the failure took place and after the counter measures have been implemented.
While presenting, give brief description of the process and about the equipment (Proper hand made sketch can also be made).
Try to preserve the failed / broken part. This helps in identifying the pattern of failure.
Make use of mapping to show the conditions of the parts, in case of similar application of same parts in different sections.
If counter measures implemented is successful, should be horizontally deployed in similar places. Mention such areas.
Show the failure trend after the counter measures have been implemented
If the counter-measures progressively refined in more than one-steps, show the PDCA cycles till the final counter-measure has been implemented।

Don’ts
Do not come to the solution hurriedly.
Do not use abbreviations for any process / equipment etc.
Do not show data based on assumptions.
Do not use graphs without proper parameters / legend
Do not show photographs without title and labeling.
Avoid too much text in slides.
Don’t give irrelevant information.